Types of Forests in India-UPSC Notes-Indian Geography

Types of Forests in India

Types of Forests and Natural Vegetation in India:

Geography of India - Soil types
India is home of diverse Natural Vegetation. From Temperate Grasslands to Tropical Rain Forest, from Montane vegatation to Thorn Forests, everything is experienced in India.This article lists the main types of forests in India and the features of natural vegetation present in these forests.



Types of Forests in India:

Broadly, the types of forests in India can be divided into five major types on the basis of certain common features like dominant natural vegetation, climatic regions etc. The types of forests in India are classified as below:

  1. Tropical Evergreen and Semi-Evergreen forests.
  2. Tropical Deciduous Forests.
  3. Tropical Thorn Forests.
  4. Montane Forests.
  5. Littoral and Swamp Forests.

Tropical Evergreen and Semi-Evergreen Forests:

Tropical Evergreen Forests

Tropical Evergreen Forests

  • Tropical Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests are typically found in warm and humid areas with rainfall more than 200cm and mean annual temperature more than 22 degrees.
  • In India, evergreen forest are found in western slopes of Western Ghats, hilly areas of N.E states, Andaman and Nicobar islands.
  • No fixed seasons for flowering, shedding or fruiting in these forests.
  • They are green all the year round.
  • Very dense forests and well stratified.
  • Very tall Trees which can go upto 60m or above are found in Tropical Evergreen forests.
  • Main Species- Rosewood, Ebony, Mahagony etc.
  • Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forests are found in less rainy areas of the region. These forests have mix of Evergreen and Deciduous varieties.
  • Main species of Semi-evergreen forests are white cedar, hollock ,kail , oak, chestnut etc.



Tropical Deciduous Forests:

  • These are the most widespread forests out of all the types of forests in India
  • Also, called as Monsoon Forests.
  • They are found in the regions having rainfall between 70-200cm.

Tropical Deciduous Forests are further classified into two types of forests on the basis of rainfall- Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests and Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests.

Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests:

  • present in the areas having rainfall between 100-200cm.
  • found in eastern slopes of Western Ghats, foothills of Himalayas in North-eastern states and Odisha.
  • Main Species of Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests: Teak, Sal, Sheshum,amla, kusum, mahua, Sandalwood etc.

Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests.

  • found in the areas having rainfall between 70-100cm.
  • present in rainier areas of peninsula and the plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • During Dry seasons, Trees shed their leaves completely and and the forest appears like a Grassland.
  • Main species of Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests: Khair, Tendu, Palas, axlewood, bel etc.



Tropical Thorn Forests:

  • Tropical Thorn Forests are found in areas having less than 50cm of Rainfall.
  • Variety of Grasses and Shrubs are found in these thorn forests.
  • They are present in dry and semi-dry areas of south-west Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  • In Tropical Thorn Forest, Trees remain leafless for most part of the year.
  • Tussocky Grass grows upto 2m in these areas.



Montane Forests:

  • This type of Forest is found in the Mountainous or Hilly regions.
  • Montane Forests in India can be classified in two types of forests – the Northern Montane Forests and the Southern Montane Forests.

     Northern Montane Forests:

  • Found in the Himalayan ranges.
  • The vegetation type changes with increase in altitude from Tropical To Tundra.
  • Deciduous forests are found at the foot-hills of the mountains.
  • Between 1000-2000m , wet-temperate type of Forests are found. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as Oak, Chestnut are commonly found in some areas at this height.
  • Between 1500- 1750m . Pine and Deodar trees are found in some areas. Chinar and Walnut trees are present in Kashmir Himalayas at this altitude.
  • Between 2200-3000m Blue Pine and Spruce appear.
  • At an altitude of 3000 – 4000m , Silver firs, Junipers, pines, birch and rhodendrons are found.
  • At Higher altitudes, Mosses and Lichens are present.

     Southern Montane Forests:

  • They are found in three major areas in Southern India – Hills of Western Ghats, Nilgiri Hills and Vindhyas.
  • As , the Hills in Southern India are closer to the tropics and with average height of 1500m , they only show two types of vegetation – Temperate in higher regions at sub-tropical in lower regions.
  • The Temperate Forests of Nilgiri, Annamalai and Panini Hills are called as Sholas.
  • Main Species of Southern Montane Forests: Magnolia, Laurel, cinchona and wattle.


Littoral and Swamp Forests:

Mangrove Forests  - Types OF Forests In India

Mangrove Forests

  • Also, called as Wetland Forests.
  • India has rich variety of these types of forests.
  • Mainly found in : reservoirs of Deccan Plateau, saline coastline of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Gulf of Kachchh, eastern coast deltas, lake and rivers of kashmir and ladakh, swamps in north-east India etc.
  • Mangroves Forests grow along coast in the salt-marshes, tidal creeks and estuaries.
  • Mangroves are home to a large variety of Birds.
  • Also, contains a number of Salt-tolerant species of plants.
  • Mangroves in India are largely present in Andaman and Nicobar island, Sunderban Deltas and Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna deltas.



Sharing increases Knowledge!

Please Share “Types Of Forests in India” with others and Leave your comments if you find this helpful. Help us in Sharing the Knowledge

Click Here to read more UPSC notes for Indian Geography.

Geography of India - Soil types

You may also like...

29 Responses

  1. Damien says:

    Greetings! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could get a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having difficulty finding one? Thanks a lot!

  2. baju muslim says:

    I want as very much suggestions as possible. The more the better. I actually haven’t had the chance to sit down and really look at the process. Again, looking for a few answers where I can begin blogging immediately..

  3. Asking questions are genuinely pleasant thing if you are not understanding something completely, except this post gives fastidious understanding even.

  4. The right way to create very own radio streaming and add the radio into my blogspot? can you give me step by step?

  5. Incredible! This blog looks exactly like my old one! It’s on a totally different topic but it has pretty much the same layout and design. Excellent choice of colors!

  6. What is on the web blogging and how do people make money from it?

  7. cara promosi says:

    I want to begin my own internet site. Are there any locations I can do this for free with minimum marketing on them? Or all free places have heaps of advertising?.

  8. I are about to start a blog. Along with many additional hopeful’s, I really hope to ultimately make money away it. I noticed a wide range of sites do not let you to generate money of google ad sense and things like that. What are a few sites I can start my blog upon that will allow this since it seems to be the most rewarding way to produce money off a blog page?.

  9. In Chrome you possess the standard silver toolbars in which the address club and file/edit bars are there is the silver precious metal background. How do you customize and alter that around?.

  10. Hi there, You’ve done an excellent job. I will definitely digg it and personally recommend to my friends.

    I’m sure they’ll be benefited from this site.

  11. I’m a professional pro author (of technology fiction) based in the UK, and I’m considering setting up a creative writing program at a nearby arts center focused on sf and illusion. Are there any assets out now there in reserve form or else I might discover useful in teaching about both science fiction/fantasy and creative writing generally?.

  12. How can I change the settings in Thunderbird so that I choose the e-mail address used to forwards blog posts?

  13. Heya i’m for the primary time here. I came across this board and I in finding It truly helpful & it helped me out much. I am hoping to present one thing again and aid others such as you helped me.

  14. Exactly what are the best free blogs that allow user-sponsored advertising and sales?

  15. Hello there, What may be the best free of charge software to automatically back-up wordpress data source and files? A software that is reliable and may not hack your password in wordpress. Have you ever tried it? For How long? Thanks a lot……

  16. I would really like to start a blog speaking out against feminism. So I would like to understand the best way to obtain and the best place to go to begin one..

  17. I haven’t a hint how to use WordPress and Comicpress to create sites and distribute comic strips! Please help. Do you know of a good walkthrough? Thanks much!.

  18. oetgrxhkjg says:

    Types of Forests in India-UPSC Notes-Indian Geography
    oetgrxhkjg http://www.gv4xmv851585rc7sxw7892ihz94o2s0is.org/

  19. We want to start a celebrity blog page, like Perez Hilton. But how do we create a blog page, with a couple writing? Also how do we all get celebrity gossip? You want to know all of the steps to get this blog well-known in the world as well as how to start it..

  20. We are a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community.
    Your site offered us with valuable info to work on. You
    have done an impressive job and our whole community will be thankful to you.

  21. How to recover blog in blogger In order to counted as spam in blogger?

  22. I want to start a website. It will be asking for money only to account the seminars associated with keeping meetings intended for the customers and for mailouts. How should I start setting that up?.

  23. What Firefox Extension may i get to download streaming videos from sites?

  24. I am focusing on an educational website and the owners needed an article section where I actually put articles they show on the site. The articles come from news/magazine and other on the web article/new resources. I have been position? Article Extracted from: (URL)? and a link towards the original article. I thought that was enough, but I have heard from a friend it isn? t.. This site is certainly NOT however publicly on-line, so I can transform things to become legal just before it becomes the best problem… What do I need like a citation to make sure I put on? t infringe on anyone? s copyright?. Do I need to perform anything else apart from listing a citation & link to be legal?.. Thanks all intended for helping!. SRGR.

  25. How frequently will Fb check for a brand new LiveJournal article to import to my notes?

  26. Anandhi says:


  27. D.Ambika Siva Prasida says:

    It’s very nice,
    But please,
    Give some easy topics also so that small children also can understand??

  28. rajesh says:

    nice information.
    plz add objective based question on dis topic.

  29. its a very helpful to me

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *